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Колхоз-/Kol'khoz/- collective farm

 

Kolkhoz is a Russian contraction which consists of two words "collective farming".  Such collective farms emerged in Russian after October Revolution in 1917. The original idea of kolkhoz, "form of agricultural production cooperative of peasants that voluntarily unite for the purpose of joint agricultural production based on ... collective labor", was violated. The land in the Soviet Union was nationalized and as a result people rights and the principles of socialist self-management, democracy, and openness were abused. Members of Kolkhoz did not have a right of free exit and it prevented from moving from rural areas to urban areas. Members of Kolkhoz were nominated to work a certain number of workdays (about 130 for adults) in agricultural circle. They were paid a share of farm's product, mainly grains. They were also allowed to hold a small plot of land to grow some vegetables and to hold some animals to maintain their family.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union the number of kolkhoz declined rapidly. Many of them ceased to exist while others were transformed to other forms of proprietorship. But do not wonder to hear from your Moscow guide about some  kolkhoz as some of them still exist and provide Moscow and Moscow region with meat, poultry and grains.

 

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